No Photoshot was Abused in the Making of this Image.
Have a great Weekend!
Tagged: , fresh , juice , orange , fruit , glass , table , gravity , braking the rules , NO photoshop
No Photoshot was Abused in the Making of this Image.
Have a great Weekend!
Tagged: , fresh , juice , orange , fruit , glass , table , gravity , braking the rules , NO photoshop
Qtpfsgui 1.9.3 tonemapping parameters:
Contrast Mapping factor: 0.668
Saturation Factor: 2
Detail Factor: 1
Tagged: , Jen’s Photography , Nikon , Nikon Coolpix L24 , point and shoot , Coolpix , macro , currants , berries , fruit , produce , eat , edible , food , snack , ingredients , healthy , leaves , nature , white currants , summer , season , seasonal , July , 2011 , Harvard Illinois , Harvard , Illinois , garden , HDR , Qtpfsgui , Mantiuk , local , locavore , Getty , Getty Images , stock photography , Luminance HDR
Project 365, #145 – 22nd July 2012
Another food related image today – just to rub it in for some folk 😉
My favourite berries in order of preference then: Gooseberry, Blueberry, Strawberry, Cranberry (as fruit juice), Blackberry and Raspberry. I have not tried Acai Berry, in it’s fruit form at least.
Although Gooseberries are my favourite, I hardly see them around these days. I’m fairly sure I remember them growing wild abundantly when I was a child, may have to start growing my own. Already have a blueberry plant which looks like it will provide a bumper crop this season!
What’s your favourite berry?
Many thanks for looking/comments/shares/favs!
Our Daily Challenge (ODC): TREAT YOURSELF
112 Pictures in 2012: #95 Berry or Berries
Tagged: , Berry , Berries , Gooseberries , Strawberry , Gosseberry , Strawberries , Cranberry , Cranberries , Raspberry , Raspberries , Blackberry , Blackberries , Acai , Fruit , Food , Nature , Healthy , Season , Plant , Treat , Flickr , 365 , 366 , Project , ZMT , Photography , Canon , 550D , Photo , Our , Daily , Challenge , ODC , 112 , Pictures , 2012 , antioxidant , blue , bowl , bright , bunch , close , close-up , delicious , dessert , diet , eating , fresh , freshness , group , ingredient , juicy , macro , natural , nutrition , objects , organic , raw , refreshment , ripe , seasonal , snack , studio , summer , sweet , table , tasty , vegetarian , wood , wooden
Tagged: , Container , Food , Freshness , Abundance , Sweet Food , Vertical , Full Frame , Close-up , High Angle View , Pink Color , Red , Plastic , Fruit , Ripe , Summer , Backgrounds , Black , Raspberry , Color Image , Checked , Large Group of Objects , No People , Photography , Healthy Eating , Food and Drink , Clean Eating , Yummy , Delicious , Perfect , marinabwfs
Sorry my friends, I have a little time to dedicate myself to Flickr. I wish everyone all the best and good light.
Do not use this image on any media, without my permission!
Tagged: , italian , food , olive , tomato , mozzarella , cheese , spaghetti , ingredient , cuisine , pasta , oil , healthy , black , white , basil , wooden , vegetable , raw , green , red , yellow , table , fresh , leaf , emmentaler , closeup , traditional , chopping board , plaid , bottle , explore
Image taken on the Urangan Pier, Hervey bay, Queensland, Australia. with a canon 6d & 10-400mm mk2 lens
Australia and New Guinea; vagrant to New Zealand, Solomons, Bismarck Archipelago, Fiji
Length 1.60–1.90 m (5.2–6.2 ft), wingspan 2.5–3.4 m (8.2–11.2 ft), weight 4–8.2 kg (8.8–18.1 lb). Predominantly white with black along primaries and very large, pale pink bill.
Pelicans are very large birds with very long bills characterised by a downcurved hook at the end of the upper mandible, and the attachment of a huge gular pouch to the lower. The slender rami of the lower bill and the flexible tongue muscles form the pouch into a basket for catching fish and, sometimes, rainwater, though in order not to hinder the swallowing of large fish, the tongue itself is tiny. They have a long neck and short stout legs with large, fully webbed feet. Although they are among the heaviest of flying birds, they are relatively light for their apparent bulk because of air pockets in the skeleton and beneath the skin enabling them to float high in the water. The tail is short and square. The wings are long and broad, suitably shaped for soaring and gliding flight, and have the unusually large number of 30 to 35 secondary flight feathers.
Males are generally larger than females and have longer bills. The smallest species is the brown pelican, small individuals of which can be no more than 2.75 kg (6.1 lb) and 1.06 m (3.5 ft) long, with a wingspan of as little as 1.83 m (6.0 ft). The largest is believed to be the Dalmatian, at up to 15 kg (33 lb) and 1.83 m (6.0 ft) in length, with a maximum wingspan of 3 m (9.8 ft). The Australian pelican’s bill may grow up to 0.5 m (1.6 ft) long in large males, the longest of any bird.
Pelicans have mainly light-coloured plumage, the exceptions being the brown and Peruvian pelicans. The bills, pouches and bare facial skin of all species become brighter before breeding season commences. The throat pouch of the Californian subspecies of the brown pelican turns bright red, and fades to yellow after the eggs are laid, while the throat pouch of the Peruvian pelican turns blue. The American white pelican grows a prominent knob on its bill that is shed once females have laid eggs. The plumage of immature pelicans is darker than that of adults. Newly hatched chicks are naked and pink, darkening to grey or black after 4 to 14 days, then developing a covering of white or grey down.
Anatomical dissections of two brown pelicans in 1939 showed that pelicans have a network of subcutaneous air sacs under their skin situated across the ventral surface including the throat, breast and undersides of the wings, as well as having air sacs in their bones. The air sacs are connected to the airways of the respiratory system, and the pelican can keep its air sacs inflated by closing its glottis, but it is not clear how air sacs are inflated. The air sacs serve to keep the pelican remarkably buoyant in the water and may also cushion the impact of the pelican’s body on the water surface when they dive from flight into water to catch fish. Superficial air sacs may also help to round body contours (especially over the abdomen where surface protuberances may be caused by viscera changing size and position) to enable the overlying feathers to form more effective heat insulation and also to enable feathers to be held in position for good aerodynamics.
Distribution and habitat
Modern pelicans are found on all continents except Antarctica. They primarily inhabit warm regions, although breeding ranges extend to latitudes of 45° South (Australian pelicans in Tasmania) and 60° North (American white pelicans in western Canada). Birds of inland and coastal waters, they are absent from polar regions, the deep ocean, oceanic islands (except the Galapagos), and inland South America, as well as from the eastern coast of South America from the mouth of the Amazon River southwards. Subfossil bones have been recovered from as far south as New Zealand’s South Island, although their scarcity and isolated occurrence suggests that these remains may have merely been vagrants from Australia (much as is the case today). Pelicans swim well with their strong legs and their webbed feet. They rub the backs of their heads on their preen glands to pick up an oily secretion, which they transfer to their plumage to waterproof it. Holding their wings only loosely against their bodies, pelicans float with relatively little of their bodies below the water surface. They dissipate excess heat by gular flutter – rippling the skin of the throat and pouch with the bill open to promote evaporative cooling. They roost and loaf communally on beaches, sandbanks and in shallow water.
A fibrous layer deep in the breast muscles can hold the wings rigidly horizontal for gliding and soaring. Thus they use thermals for soaring to heights of 3000 m (10,000 ft) or more, combined both with gliding and with flapping flight in V formation, to commute distances of up to 150 km (93 mi) to feeding areas. Pelicans also fly low (or "skim") over stretches of water, using a phenomenon known as ground effect to reduce drag and increase lift. As the air flows between the wings and the water surface it is compressed to a higher density and exerts a stronger upward force against the bird above. Hence substantial energy is saved while flying.
Adult pelicans rely on visual displays and behaviour to communicate, particularly using their wings and bills. Agonistic behaviour consists of thrusting and snapping at opponents with their bills, or lifting and waving their wings in a threatening manner. Adult pelicans grunt when at the colony, but are generally silent elsewhere or outside breeding season. Conversely, colonies are noisy as chicks vocalise extensively.
The diet of pelicans usually consists of fish, which can be up to 30 cm (1 ft) long, but amphibians, turtles, crustaceans and occasionally birds are also eaten. Aquatic prey is most commonly taken at or near the water surface. In deep water, white pelicans often fish alone. Nearer the shore, several will encircle schools of small fish or form a line to drive them into the shallows, beating their wings on the water surface and then scooping up the prey. They catch multiple small fish by expanding the throat pouch, which must be drained above the water surface before swallowing. This operation takes up to a minute, during which time other seabirds may steal the fish.
Large fish are caught with the bill-tip, then tossed up in the air to be caught and slid into the gullet head-first. A gull will sometimes stand on the pelican’s head, peck it to distraction, and grab a fish from the open bill. Pelicans in their turn sometimes snatch prey from other waterbirds.
The brown pelican usually plunge-dives for its prey, especially for anchovies and menhaden. Although principally a fish eater, the Australian pelican is also an eclectic and opportunistic scavenger and carnivore that forages in landfill sites as well as taking carrion and "anything from insects and small crustaceans to ducks and small dogs". Food is not stored in a pelican’s throat pouch, contrary to popular folklore.
Consumption of other birds by pelicans is rare, although great white pelicans have been observed swallowing pigeons in St. James’s Park in London. Spokeswoman for the Royal Parks Louise Wood opined that feeding on other birds is more likely with captive pelicans that live in a semi-urban environment and are in constant close contact with humans. However, in the Western Cape region of South Africa, biologist Marta de Ponte recorded the same species eating Cape gannet chicks on Malgas Island as well as Cape cormorants, crowned cormorants, kelp gulls, greater crested terns and African penguins on Dassen Island and elsewhere. Brown pelicans have been reported preying on young common murres in California as well as the eggs and nestlings of cattle egrets and nestling great egrets in Baja California, Mexico.
Pelicans are gregarious and nest colonially. Pairs are monogamous for a single season, but the pair bond extends only to the nesting area; mates are independent away from the nest. The ground-nesting (white) species have a complex communal courtship involving a group of males chasing a single female in the air, on land, or in the water while pointing, gaping, and thrusting their bills at each other. They can finish the process in a day. The tree-nesting species have a simpler process in which perched males advertise for females. The location of the breeding colony is constrained by the availability of an ample supply of fish to eat, although pelicans can use thermals to soar and commute for hundreds of kilometres daily to fetch food.
The Australian pelican has two reproductive strategies depending on the local degree of environmental predictability. Colonies of tens or hundreds, rarely thousands, of birds breed regularly on small coastal and subcoastal islands where food is seasonally or permanently available. In arid inland Australia, especially in the endorheic Lake Eyre basin, pelicans will breed opportunistically in very large numbers of up to 50,000 pairs, when irregular major floods, which may be many years apart, fill ephemeral salt lakes and provide large amounts of food for several months before drying out again.
In all species copulation takes place at the nest site; it begins shortly after pairing and continues for 3–10 days before egg-laying. The male brings the nesting material, in ground-nesting species (which may not build a nest) sometimes in the pouch, and in tree-nesting species crosswise in the bill. The female then heaps the material up to form a simple structure.
The eggs are oval, white and coarsely textured. All species normally lay at least two eggs; the usual clutch size is one to three, rarely up to six. Both sexes incubate with the eggs on top of or below the feet; they may display when changing shifts. Incubation takes 30–36 days; hatching success for undisturbed pairs can be as high as 95 percent but, because of sibling competition or siblicide, in the wild usually all but one nestling dies within the first few weeks (later in the pink-backed and spot-billed species). Both parents feed their young. Small chicks are fed by regurgitation; after about a week they are able to put their heads into their parent’s pouch and feed themselves. Sometimes before, or especially after, being fed, they may seem to have a seizure that ends in falling unconscious; the reason is not clearly known.
Parents of ground-nesting species sometimes drag older young around roughly by the head before feeding them. From about 25 days old, the young of these species gather in "pods" or "crèches" of up to 100 birds in which parents recognise and feed only their own offspring. By 6–8 weeks they wander around, occasionally swimming, and may practise communal feeding. Young of all species fledge 10–12 weeks after hatching. They may remain with their parents afterwards, but are now seldom or never fed. They are mature at three or four years old. Overall breeding success is highly variable. Pelicans live for 15 to 25 years in the wild, although one reached an age of 54 years in captivity.
Globally, pelican populations are adversely affected by four main factors: declining supplies of fish through overfishing or water pollution, destruction of habitat, direct effects of human activity such as disturbance at nesting colonies, hunting and culling, entanglement in fishing lines and hooks, and lastly the presence of pollutants such as DDT and endrin. Most species’ populations are more or less stable, although three are classified by the IUCN as being at risk. All species breed readily in zoos, which is potentially useful for conservation management.
The combined population of brown and Peruvian pelicans is estimated at 650,000 birds, with around 250,000 in the United States and Caribbean, and 400,000 in Peru.[a] The National Audubon Society estimates the global population of the brown pelican at 300,000. Numbers of brown pelican plummeted in the 1950s and 1960s, largely as a consequence of environmental DDT pollution, and the species was listed as endangered in the US in 1970. With restrictions on DDT use in the US from 1972, its population has recovered, and it was delisted in 2009.
The Peruvian pelican is listed as Near Threatened because, although the population is estimated by BirdLife International to exceed 500,000 mature individuals, and is possibly increasing, it has been much higher in the past. It declined dramatically during the 1998 El Niño event and could suffer similar declines in the future. Conservation needs include regular monitoring throughout the range to determine population trends, particularly after El Niño years; restricting human access to important breeding colonies; and assessing interactions with fisheries.
The spot-billed pelican has an estimated population between 13,000 and 18,000 and is considered to be Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Numbers declined substantially during the 20th century, one crucial factor being the eradication of the important Sittaung valley breeding colony in Burma through deforestation and the loss of feeding sites. The chief threats it faces are from habitat loss and human disturbance but populations have mostly stabilised following increased protection in India and Cambodia.
The pink-backed pelican has a large population ranging over much of Sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of substantial threats or evidence of declines across its range, its conservation status is assessed as being of Least Concern. Regional threats include the drainage of wetlands and increasing disturbance in southern Africa. The species is susceptible to bioaccumulation of toxins and to the destruction of nesting trees by logging.
The American white pelican has increased in numbers, with its population estimated at over 157,000 birds in 2005, becoming more numerous east of the continental divide while declining in the west. However it is unclear whether its numbers have been affected by exposure to pesticides as it has also suffered from loss of habitat through wetland drainage and competition with recreational use of lakes and rivers.
Great white pelicans range over a large area of Africa and southern Asia. The overall trend in numbers is uncertain, with a mix of regional populations that are increasing, declining, stable or unknown, but there is no evidence of rapid overall decline and the status of the species is assessed as being of Least Concern. Threats include the drainage of wetlands, persecution and sport hunting, disturbance at the breeding colonies, and contamination by pesticides and heavy metals.
The Dalmatian pelican is the rarest species with a population estimated at between 10,000 and 20,000 following massive declines in the 19th and 20th centuries. The main ongoing threats include hunting, especially in eastern Asia, disturbance, coastal development, collision with overhead power lines and the over-exploitation of fish stocks. It is listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as the population trend is downwards, especially in Mongolia where it is nearly extinct. However, several colonies are increasing in size and the colony at the Small Prespa Lake in Greece has nearly 1000 breeding pairs.
Widespread across Australia, the Australian pelican has a population generally estimated at between 300,000 and 500,000 individuals. Overall population numbers fluctuate widely and erratically depending on wetland conditions and breeding success across the continent. The species is assessed as being of Least Concern.
Culling and disturbance
Pelicans have been persecuted by humans for their perceived competition for fish, despite the fact that their diet overlaps little with fish caught by people. Starting in the 1880s, American white pelicans were clubbed and shot, their eggs and young were deliberately destroyed, and their feeding and nesting sites were degraded by water management schemes and wetland drainage. Even in the 21st century, an increase in the population of American white pelicans in south-eastern Idaho in the US was seen to threaten the recreational cutthroat trout fishery there, leading to official attempts to reduce pelican numbers through systematic harassment and culling.
Great white pelicans on Dyer Island, in the Western Cape region of South Africa, were culled during the 19th century because their predation of the eggs and chicks of guano-producing seabirds was seen to threaten the livelihood of the guano collectors. More recently, such predation at South African seabird colonies has impacted on the conservation of threatened seabird populations, especially crowned cormorants, Cape cormorants and bank cormorants. This has led to suggestions that pelican numbers should be controlled at vulnerable colonies.
Apart from habitat destruction and deliberate, targeted persecution, pelicans are vulnerable to disturbance at their breeding colonies by birdwatchers, photographers and other curious visitors. Human presence alone can cause the birds to accidentally displace or destroy their eggs, leave hatchlings exposed to predators and adverse weather, or even abandon their colonies completely.
Parasites and disease
As with other bird families, pelicans are susceptible to a variety of parasites. Specialist feather lice of the genus Piagetella are found in the pouches of all species of pelican, but are otherwise only known from New World and Antarctic cormorants. Avian malaria is carried by the mosquito Culex pipens, and high densities of these biting insects may force pelican colonies to be abandoned. Leeches may attach to the vent or sometimes the inside of the pouch. A study of the parasites of the American white pelican found 75 different species, including tapeworms, flukes, flies, fleas, ticks and nematodes. Many of these do little harm, but flies may be implicated in the death of nestlings, particularly if they are weak or unwell, and the soft tick Ornithodoros capensis sometimes causes adults to desert the nest. Many pelican parasites are found in other bird groups, but several lice are very host-specific.
Healthy pelicans can usually cope with their lice, but sick birds may carry hundreds of individuals, which hastens their demise. The pouch louse Piagetiella peralis, which occurs in the pouch and therefore cannot be removed by preening, is usually not a serious problem, even when present in such numbers that it covers the whole interior of the pouch, but sometimes inflammation and bleeding may harm the host. The brown pelican has a similarly extensive range of parasites. The nematodes Contracaecum multipapillatum and C. mexicanum and the trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae have caused illness and mortality in the Puerto Rican population, possibly endangering the pelican on this island. In May 2012, hundreds of Peruvian pelicans were reported to have perished in Peru from a combination of starvation and roundworm infestation.
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A loaf of rustic artisan bread on a wooden cutting board with nuts
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